STEPS Research

STEPS Research


The aim of WP 1 in the STEPS program is to develop environmentally benign tools and processes for making safe, nontoxic building blocks (or monomers) for the polymers from renewable feedstocks. Polymers are the main components in plastics and the nature of the monomers used largely defines the properties of the plastic product.

As the focus in STEPS is on polyesters, the monomers to be made in WP1 will comprise primarily aliphatic/aromatic diacids, hydroxyacids and diols that are linked together through an ester bond.

The important consideration for the production of chemical building blocks is the sustainability of the feedstocks as well as the process technologies. Renewable feedstocks include mostly organic material obtained from plant kingdom such as from agriculture, forestry, aquatic plants, algae – generally called as biomass, but also organic wastes generated as a result of human activity, and gases like carbon dioxide and methane.

When using biomass as feedstock, we will consider aspects such as availability in the region and in Europe, potential competition with food, feed, and other industries, environmental impact, and policies impacting their use. Among the biomass streams that are being evaluated are those from production of sugar, starch and paper pulp obtained from our industrial partners. Pretreatment and fractionation of several of these streams is required to separate the biomass components and obtain cleaner sugar stream for use as raw material for producing the building blocks.

The process technologies for transformation of the feedstock will follow the green chemistry principles where besides the renewable feedstocks, high atom economy, heterogeneous catalysis, low energy consumption, reduced waste, etc. will constitute important parameters.

Industrial biotechnology is among the main process alternatives, wherein microorganisms or their enzymes serve as mild, biodegradable catalysts. The enormous microbial diversity in nature provides access to large number of enzymes and metabolic pathways that can be used for production of natural as well as non-natural molecules that can serve as polymer building blocks. Furthermore, modern computational- and genetic tools can be used to improve the efficiency, selectivity and stability of both the microbes and enzymes.

Routes for transformation of sugars as well as CO2 will be designed based on microbial-/enzymatic-/ chemical conversions, constructed and optimized. and evaluated with respect to production efficiency, economic- and environmental sustainability.

The research groups participating in WP1 are Departments of Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering at the Faculty of Engineering of Lund University. Several companies including Bona, Nordic Sugar, Lyckeby, Polykemi and Södra also cooperate in this WP.


© Foto Julio Gonzalez, SLU

This work package is focusing on the preparation of new sustainable biobased plastics with superior quality towards various industrial applications. Here the superior quality is as important as sustainability, because it may increase the chance for the new product with likely higher price to be adopted by industry.

Depending on their applications, we will design and make either more biodegradable or more durable biobased plastics. The former can be easily degraded into harmless matters after their lifetime, so they can help to solve the white plastic pollution. The latter has longer lifetime, and can be easily reused and recycled. It may also have the potential to extend their use in other application fields where durability is an important consideration.

In this work package, we will use the sustainable biobased chemicals prepared from WP1, as well as other green or recycled materials. Specifically, we will focus on the development of new biobased polyesters and composite materials using protein, starch, or cellulose. We will develop new synthetic and processing technologies, using green catalyst, green additives and green techniques. The physical and mechanical properties and biodegradability of the new materials will be studied. Our focused applications include textile fibers, packaging materials, durable plastics, and wooden floor finishes. Upscaling production and product evaluation will be carried out together with industrial partners.


WP3 explores transition pathways for sustainable plastics and how such transitions can be governed. A transition towards a more sustainable plastics production and consumption system involves multiple and interrelated changes in feedstock, technologies, behaviour and norms of producers and consumers, organization of production networks and regulation. An overall aim is to develop research-based advice on policy and industrial strategies for the development and adoption of a sustainable plastic system.

The transition involves interrelated changes in feedstock, technologies, behaviour and norms of producers and consumers, organization of production networks and regulation.

There is no general agreement on what constitutes a sustainable plastics system but some general features are widely accepted. It involves an increase in the resource and material efficiency of plastic consumption, a significant increase in the reuse and recycling of plastics, a shift to new plastic additives with low environmental and health impacts, and a switch to renewable feedstock.

The feedstock issue is closely linked to developments in other sectors where the development of renewable electricity, power-to-gas, carbon capture and use, and technologies for a variety of other bio-based products is shaping the prospects for electricity-, CO2- and bio-based plastics. In contrast to this primary conversion step, the use, reuse and recycling of plastics represents a different playing-field. It is less dependent on developments in other sectors and involves a much broader and diverse set of actors involved in the formulation, design, use, reuse and recycling. The actors range from large companies to household consumers at different stages in the life-cycle of plastics.

For understanding the prospects for change we initially map the existing plastic system in its many dimensions, i.e., to know better what we have to work with.  Next, viable plastic pathways are explored and assessed in order to get a clearer idea of where we should be going. Getting there requires strategizing and analysing policy options as well as understanding what needs to happen to instigate and speed up the transition.

STEPS Publications

K Molina-Besch. 2022. Use phase and end‑of‑life modeling of biobased biodegradable plastics in life cycle assessment: a review. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. First published: 06 August 2022.

F Bauer, TD Nielsen, LJ Nilsson, E Palm, K Ericsson, A Fråne, J Cullen. 2022. Plastics and climate change—Breaking carbon lock-ins through three mitigation pathways. One Earth 5(4), 361-376

M Sayed, Y Gaber, F Junghus, E Valdés Martín, S-H Pyo, R Hatti-Kaul. 2022. Oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural with a novel aryl alcohol oxidase from Mycobacterium sp. MS1601. Microbial Biotechnology 15(8), 2176-2190.

M Sjölin, M Sayed, J Thuvander, F Lipnizki, R Hatti-Kaul, O Wallberg. 2022. Effect of membrane purification and concentration of sucrose in sugar beet molasses for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 179, 365-373.

Y Umar, O Velasco, OY Abdelaziz, O Aboelazayem, MA Gadalla, CP Hulteberg, B Saha. 2022. A renewable lignin-derived bio-oil for boosting the oxidation stability of biodiesel. Renewable Energy 182, 867-878.

Z Guo, N Warlin, S V Mankar, M Sidqi, M Andersson, B Zhang, E Nilsson. 2021. Development of Circularly Recyclable Low Melting Temperature Bicomponent Fibers toward a Sustainable Nonwoven Application. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng.  9, 49, 16778–16785.

K Li, H Almqvist, C Hulteberg. 2021. Three-step conversion of Indulin AT to muconic acid under mild conditions. Biomass and Bioenergy, 153, 106232.

H Almqvist, H Veras, K Li, J Garcia Hidalgo, C Hulteberg, M Gorwa-Grauslund, N Skorupa Parachin, M Carlquist.  2021. Muconic acid production using engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and a guaiacol-rich fraction derived from Kraft lignin. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 9(24), 8097-8106.

E Palm, J Hasselbalch, K Holmberg and TD Nielsen. 2021. Narrating plastics governance: policy narratives in the European plastics strategy. Environmental Politics.

F Walch, OY Abdelaziz, S Meier, S Bjelić, CP Hulteberg, A Riisager. 2021. Oxidative depolymerization of Kraft lignin to high-value aromatics using a homogeneous vanadium–copper catalyst. Catalysis Science & Technology, 11(5), 1843-1853.

P Wang, B Zhang. 2021. Sustainable aromatic polyesters with 1,5-disubstituted indole units. RSC Advances 11, 16480 –16489.

X Li Sedef İlk, JA Linares-Pastén, Y Liu, DB Raina, D Demircan, and B Zhang. 2021. Synthesis, Enzymatic degradation, and polymer-miscibility evaluation of nonionic antimicrobial hyperbranched polyesters with indole or isatin functionalities. Biomacromolecules 22, 5, 2256–2271.

N Valsange, M N Garcia Gonzalez, N Warlin, S V Mankar, N Rehnberg, S Lundmark, B Zhang and P Jannasch. 2021. Biobased aliphatic polyesters from a spirocyclic dicarboxylate monomer derived from levulinic acid. Green Chemistry 23, 5706-5723.

N Warlin, E Nilsson, Z Guo, S V Mankar, N G Valsange, N Rehnberg, S Lundmark, P Jannasch and B Zhang. 2021. Synthesis and melt-spinning of partly bio-based thermoplastic poly(cycloacetal-urethane)s toward sustainable textiles. Polymer Chemistry 12, 4942–4953.

F Bauer, G Fontenit. 2021. Plastic dinosaurs – Digging deep into the accelerating carbon lock-in of plastics. Energy Policy 156, 112418.

A Kawde, M Sayed, Q Shi, J Uhlig, T Pullerits and R Hatti-Kaul. 2021. Photoelectrochemical Oxidation in Ambient Conditions Using Earth-Abundant Hematite Anode: A Green Route for the Synthesis of Biobased Polymer Building Blocks. Catalysts  11(8), 969.

O Englund Örn, S Sacchetto, E W J van Niel and R Hatti-Kaul. 2021. Enhanced Protocatechuic Acid Production From Glucose Using Pseudomonas putida 3-Dehydroshikimate Dehydratase Expressed in a Phenylalanine-Overproducing Mutant of Escherichia coli. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 9, 695704.

Z Guo, M Eriksson, H de la Motte, E Adolfsson. 2021. Circular recycling of polyester textile waste using a sustainable catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production 283, 124579.

M Sayed, N Warlin, C Hulteberg, I Munslow, S Lundmark, O Pajalic, P Tunå, B Zhang, S-H Pyo, R Hatti-Kaul. 2020. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from fructose: an efficient continuous process in a water-dimethyl carbonate biphasic system with high yield product recovery. Green Chemistry 22, 5402.

P Wang, JA Linares-Pastén, B Zhang. 2020. Synthesis, molecular docking simulation, and enzymatic degradation of AB-type indole-based polyesters with improved thermal properties. Biomacromolecules 21, 3, 1078.

M Grillitsch, T Hansen, S Madsen. 2020. Transformative Innovation Policy Handbook of Alternative Theories of Innovation. Edward Elgar: Cheltenham.

E Palm, A Nikoleris. 2020. Conflicting expectations on carbon dioxide utilization. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 33, 2, 217.

S-H Pyo, J Hoon Park, V Srebny, R Hatti-Kaul (2020). A sustainable synthetic route for biobased 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, adipic acid and ε-caprolactone by integrating bio- and chemical catalysis. Green Chemistry, Accepted Manuscript.

S-H Pyo, SJ Glaser, N Rehnberg, R Hatti-Kaul (2020). Clean production of levulinic acid from fructose and glucose in salt water by heterogeneous catalytic dehydration. ACS Omega 5, 24, 14275–14282.

E Chertkovskaya, K Holmberg, M Petersén, J Stripple, S Ullström (2020). Making visible, rendering obscure: reading the plastic crisis through contemporary artistic visual representations. Global Sustainability 3, e14, 1–12.

P Zhu, O Y.Abdelaziz, C P Hulteberg, A Riisager (2020). New synthetic approaches to biofuels from lignocellulosic biomassCurrent Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry 21, 16-21.

R Hatti-Kaul, L J Nilsson, B Zhang, N Rehnberg, S Lundmark (2020). Designing Biobased Recyclable Polymers for Plastics. Trends in Biotechnology 38(1), 50-67.

N Warlin, M N Garcia Gonzalez, S Mankar, N G Valsange, M Sayed, S-H Pyo, N Rehnberg, S Lundmark, R Hatti-Kaul, P Jannasch and B Zhang (2019). A rigid spirocyclic diol from fructose-based5-hydroxymethylfurfural: synthesis, life-cycleassessment, and polymerization for renewablepolyesters and poly(urethane-urea)s. Green Chemistry 21, 6667-6684.

S V Mankar, M N Garcia Gonzalez, N Warlin, N G Valsange, N Rehnberg, S Lundmark, P Jannasch, and B Zhang (2019). Synthesis, Life Cycle Assessment, and Polymerization of a Vanillin-Based Spirocyclic Diol toward Polyesters with Increased Glass-Transition Temperature. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 7 (23), 19090-19103.

M G Sanku, H Svensson (2019). Modelling the precipitating non-aqueous CO2 capture system AMP-NMP, using the unsymmetric electrolyte NRTL. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 89, 20-32.

C R Arza and B Zhang (2019). Synthesis, Thermal Properties, and Rheological Characteristics of Indole-Based Aromatic Polyesters. ACS Omega 4 (12), 15012-15021.

T D Nielsen, J Hasselbalch, K Holmberg, J Stripple (2019). Politics and the plastic crisis: A review throughout the plastic life cycle. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment c360. Available online 8 August 2019.

S-H Pyo, M Sayed and R Hatti-Kaul (2019). Batch and continuous flow production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from high concentration of fructose using acidic ion exchange catalyst. Organic Process Research & Development 23 (5), 952–960.

M Sayed, S Pyo, N Rehnberg and R Hatti-Kaul (2019). Selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid using Gluconobacter oxydans. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 7 (4), 4406-4413.

T D Nielsen, K Holmberg and J Stripple (2019). Need a bag? A review of public policies on plastic carrier bags – Where, how and to what effect? Waste Management 87, 428-440.

F Bauer, L Fuenfschilling (2019). Local initiatives and global regimes–Multi-scalar transition dynamics in the chemical industry. Journal of Cleaner Production 216, 172-183.

R Hatti-Kaul, L Chen, T Dishisha and H El Enshasy (2018). Lactic acid bacteria: from starter cultures to producers of chemicalsFEMS Microbiology Letters 365, fny213.

P Wang, C R Arza, B Zhang (2018). Indole as a new sustainable aromatic unit for high quality biopolyesters. Polymer Chemistry 9, 4706.

F Bauer, T Hansen and H Hellsmark (2018). Innovation in the bioeconomy – dynamics of biorefinery innovation networks. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 30 (8), 935–947.

T Hansen, L Coenen (2017). Unpacking resource mobilisation by incumbents for biorefineries: The role of micro-level factors for technological innovation system weaknesses. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management,  29 (5), 500-513.

E Palm, L J Nilsson & M Åhman (2016). Electricity-based plastics and their potential demand for electricity and carbon dioxide. Journal of cleaner production, 129, 548-555.

K Holmberg, S Persson, J Stripple (2021). The future of plastics? Swedish public opinion on plastics policies. Report. ISBN 978-91-8039-022-4.

F Bauer, K Holmberg, L J Nilsson, E Palm, J Stripple (2020). Strategising Plastic Governance. Policy Brief.

T Nielsen and F Bauer (2019). Plastics and sustainable investments – An information brief for investors. Brief.

M Fransson, V Geraldsson, H Makhool, E Ruuth, H Westin (2019). Feasibility study for the industrial production of 2,5- furandicarboxylic acid from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Project report KETN25, Lund University.

N. Barbour, M. Lilja, R. Olofsson, R. Ostréus, C. Portal and H. Williamson (2018). Industrial-scale production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from renewable feedstocks. Project report KETN25, Lund University.

T Nielsen, E Palm, S Madsen, L J Nilsson, E Lindblad (2018). Pathways to sustainable plastics – a discussion brief. Brief.

K Ericsson (2017). Biogenic carbon dioxide as feedstock for production of chemicals and fuels – A technoeconomic assessment with a European perspective. Report.

E Palm and E Svensson Myrin (2017). Mapping the plastics system and its sustainability challenges. Report.

A Isacsson. Klimatstrategier i kemiindustrin – Analys av 6 företags utsläppsstrategier kopplat till länders åtagande. 2021.

F de Agostini. The relation between food shelf-life and environmental impact of different plastic packaging alternatives. 2021.

D Sukumaran Nair. Integration of food shelf-life in life cycle assessment of polymers. 2021.

M F Njoman. Packaging and E-Commerce: An exploration of needs and potential innovations. 2021.

R Saravana Kumar. Packaging for Plant-based protein diets – Exploring the requirements from the consumer and industry perspective. 2021.

M A Ruiz Meija, M M Pelitser. Assessment of 1,3-propanediol production using L. reuteri, and its downstream processing. 2021.

M Mao, Y Fan. Mutagenesis of the lipolytic enzyme Lysin B-D29 to enhance its activity and thermostability. 2021.

E Olsson. Homovanillic Acid: a novel building block for lignin-based polyester. 2021.

F Sinclair. Exploring flexible structures in 3D-printed bio-based materials to closely mimic the properties of foam. 2021.

E Friberg, E Wiktorsson, J Jarnås and M Lindblad. Feasibility study of HMF production from fructose on an industrial scale. 2020.

A Zejnullahu. Development of process parameters and potential applications of additive manufacturing in bio-based materials. 2020.

S Alipour. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for direct production of 4-hydroxybutyrate from glucose. 2020. Master thesis in Biotechnology, KTH.

R Linssen. Bioconversion of glucose to 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA) using integrated biological and chemical processes. 2020. Internship Report, Wageningen University.

A Karajos. Synthesis and polymerization of new bio-based building blocks. 2020.

M Pettersson. The regional technological innovation system for recycled plastics in Skåne. 2020.

D Helin and K Palmér. 3D printing tools for injection moulding. 2020.

K Holmberg. The Political Economy of Plastics: Production, Incumbency and Fossil Fuels. 2019.

M Brüls. Bio-based vanillin for the synthesis of high glass transition temperature polyesters. 2019.

V Srebny. Biotransformation of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid and its use for lipase catalysed polycondensation. 2019.

S Sachetto. Development of a biotechnological production system for aromatic building blocks from sugars. 2019.

S Saleh. An integrated chemo-biocatalytic process for the production of Furan-2.5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA). 2019.

D Stallone. Exploring an alternative metabolic pathway for production of adipic acid. A study on homocitrate synthase. 2019.

O Lennartsson. Developing a new polyester filament for 3d-printing. 2019.

A Svantesson. Rör(l)igt mål mot ökad återvinning av plast. En studie av den svenska dagligvaruhandelns mål om materialåtervinningsbara plastförpackningar. June 2019.

L Freitas. Comparative Analysis of Plastic Packaging Recycling in Portugal and Sweden. June 2018.

M Malmsjö. Sustainable materials and solutions to individual polybags used in the retail-industryJune 2018.

C Lindgren. Exploring the use of different co-solvents combined with CO2 for glycoalkaloid extraction from potato proteinJune 2018.

D Kuan, T O’Bryan. Investigation of rigid building block made from bio based materialCenter of Analysis and Synthesis Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University. June 2017.

D Gustavsson, T Stark. Production of 5-hydroxylmethyl
furfural from hexose sugars using acid catalystsDepartment of
Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University. February 2017.

E Nordander, M Malmgren. New Materials for 3D Printing. 2017.